In this file:

 

·         China's Xi Jinping and Russia's Vladimir Putin Pledge 'Mutual Support'

… "China stands ready to continue mutual support with Russia on issues concerning core interests and major concerns, such as sovereignty and security, and to deepen strategic coordination between the two countries," he said…

 

·         China’s Xi gives most direct backing to Putin since invasion

‘Sino-Russian relations have maintained a good momentum for development,’ Xi tells Putin.

 

·         China and Russia: Exploring Ties Between Two Authoritarian Powers

China and Russia have expanded trade and defense ties over the past decade, but they’re not formal allies. Experts say Russia’s war in Ukraine could be a turning point in the relationship.

 

 

China's Xi Jinping and Russia's Vladimir Putin Pledge 'Mutual Support'

 

By John Feng, Newsweek

6/15/22

 

President Xi Jinping of China and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, renewed support for each other's core interests in a telephone conversation on Wednesday as the war in Ukraine entered its 16th week.

 

"China stands ready to promote the stable and long-term development of pragmatic bilateral cooperation with Russia," Xi told Putin, according to a Chinese Foreign Ministry readout.

 

"China stands ready to continue mutual support with Russia on issues concerning core interests and major concerns, such as sovereignty and security, and to deepen strategic coordination between the two countries," he said.

 

In return, Putin threw his weight behind Xi's "global security initiative" and backed Beijing's opposition to interference on "domestic affairs," among them Xinjiang, Hong Kong and Taiwan, the Chinese-language press release said. The comments built on glowing remarks by Russia's foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov, earlier this month.

 

In a paragraph about Ukraine, Xi told the Russian leader: "China has always made independent judgements based on the historical context and merits of the Ukraine issue." China has sought to promote world peace and the stability of the global economic order, Xi said.

 

"All parties should seek a proper resolution to the Ukraine crisis in a responsible manner. China will continue to play a constructive role in this regard," Xi said without elaborating. His comments on the Ukraine war were omitted from an English-language readout on the Chinese Foreign Ministry's website...

 

more, including links

https://www.newsweek.com/china-russia-xi-jinping-vladimir-putin-call-ukraine-war-1716060

 

 

China’s Xi gives most direct backing to Putin since invasion

‘Sino-Russian relations have maintained a good momentum for development,’ Xi tells Putin.

 

By Stuart Lau, POLITICO

June 15, 2022 

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping on Wednesday offered the most unambiguous declaration of support to his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin since the invasion of Ukraine, vowing to support Moscow’s “sovereignty and security.”

 

The remarks were a significant rhetorical departure from Xi’s earlier call on Putin to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of “all countries” — a more universal remark that could be loosely interpreted to include Ukraine — which he made a day after the war began.

 

Now, more than 100 days into the war, Xi focused squarely on his support for Russia in his latest call with Putin.

 

“China is willing to push for the steady and long-term development of bilateral pragmatic cooperation. China is willing to mutually support Russia on core interests and matters of paramount concern, such as sovereignty and security, as well as [achieve] closer strategic cooperation,” Xi was quoted as saying by the state broadcaster CCTV.

 

Xi and Putin reached a “no limits” partnership just weeks before the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Since the war, Beijing’s attitude has often been described as the contradictory “pro-Russia neutrality,” meaning it neither condemned Moscow nor provided it with arms or means to circumvent sanctions.

 

Amid concerns about China’s role as an economic lifeline for Russia’s sanction-battered economy, Xi doubled down on China’s vision with Russia...

 

more

https://www.politico.eu/article/china-xi-give-most-direct-backing-putin-invasion-ukraine/

 

 

China and Russia: Exploring Ties Between Two Authoritarian Powers

China and Russia have expanded trade and defense ties over the past decade, but they’re not formal allies. Experts say Russia’s war in Ukraine could be a turning point in the relationship.

 

By Lindsay Maizland, Council on Foreign Relations 

June 14, 2022

 

Summary

 

·         China and Russia have expanded trade and defense ties over the past decade. But they are not formal allies, and some experts question the strength of the relationship.

·         They share the desire to curb the United States’ power and challenge its hegemony. Russia has used force, while China has worked to compete with the United States.

·         Experts say Russia’s war in Ukraine has exposed the limits of the relationship. China hasn’t defended Russia on the battlefield, though Chinese officials have refused to condemn the war.

 

Introduction

 

China and Russia have a long and complicated history, marked by periods of solidarity as well as disagreement. The neighbors have strengthened ties over the past decade, but some experts question the depth of their strategic partnership. They say the countries’ alignment is driven more by their common rivalry with the United States than any natural affinity for each other.

 

In the past, tensions have flared over issues including communist doctrine, their extensive shared border, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Today, people-to-people connections remain weak, and officials continue to distrust each other despite formal pronouncements of cooperation. Many foreign policy analysts say Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine could be a turning point in the relationship, and how their relationship develops will likely have major consequences for the international order. 

 

Are China and Russia allies?

 

China and Russia are not formal treaty allies, meaning they aren’t bound to come to the other’s defense, and they are otherwise unlikely to do so in the case of Ukraine or Taiwan. But they call each other strategic partners and have grown closer in recent years. At a meeting in February 2022, days before Russia invaded Ukraine, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin said their partnership has “no limits” and vowed to deepen cooperation on various fronts. Xi and Putin are believed to have a close personal relationship, having met with each other more than forty times since 2012.

 

But some experts say the partnership is one mostly of convenience, where the main force pushing them together is their shared perception that the United States threatens their interests. For their part, U.S. leaders have in recent years characterized China and Russia as the country’s great-power rivals [PDF]. “I don’t think China-Russia is a natural alliance,” Yale Law School’s Susan A. Thornton says. “The deterioration of relations with the United States facilitates the driving together of China and Russia.”

 

How do their foreign policies and interests compare? ...

 

What are major challenges for the relationship? ...

 

What have been turning points in the relationship? ...

 

What are their economic ties? ...

 

What are their military ties? ...

 

Recommended Resources ...

 

more, including links, charts, map

https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-russia-relationship-xi-putin-taiwan-ukraine